Testing the nicotine dependence measure mFTQ for adolescent smokers: A multinational investigation

Alexander V. Prokhorov, Georges E. Khalil, Dawn W. Foster, Salma K. Marani, Michele Guindani, Jose P. Espada, Maria T. Gonzálvez, Bulat Idrisov, Artur Galimov, Monika Arora, Abha Tewari, Richard Isralowitz, Punyarat Lapvongwatana, Natkamol Chansatitporn, Xinguang Chen, Hong Zheng, Steve Sussman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background and Objectives: As a measure of nicotine dependence among adolescent smokers, the modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ; seven items), has been successfully used in the United States (USA). Nonetheless, the validity and reliability of mFTQ at the international level is still needed. The current study is the first to test the validity and reliability of mFTQ in four countries: Thailand, Spain, the USA, and Russia. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, mFTQ, risk factors of nicotine dependence, and sociodemographic characteristics were assessed. Risk factors included age of first cigarette, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of marijuana use, and number of cigarettes smoked yesterday. Salivary cotinine was also obtained in Thailand and Spain. Results: For all four countries, mFTQ exhibited a single factor structure, as supported by previous work in the USA. For all studied countries except Thailand, mFTQ presented acceptable internal reliability. Overall, risk factors of nicotine dependence have predicted mFTQ scores across countries. Frequency of alcohol use in the USA and frequency of marijuana use in Thailand and Spain were not associated with mFTQ scores. Discussion and Conclusions: mFTQ is a single-factor measure of nicotine dependence that shows acceptable internal consistency and validity across countries. Further work can advance the scale and tailor it to different cultures. Scientific Significance: mFTQ can be a clinically practical international measure of nicotine dependence. This study provides initial support for the utility of the mFTQ among Thai, Spanish, American, and Russian adolescents. Further research is needed to test and advance mFTQ across cultures. (Am J Addict 2017;26:689–696).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)689-696
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal on Addictions
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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