The diverse transformer (Trf) protein family in the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus acts through a collaboration between cellular and humoral immune effector arms

Iryna Yakovenko, Asaf Donnyo, Or Ioscovich, Benyamin Rosental, Matan Oren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sea urchins are long-living marine invertebrates with a complex innate immune system, which includes expanded families of immune receptors. A central immune gene family in sea urchins encodes the Transformer (Trf) proteins. The Trf family has been studied mainly in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Here, we explore this protein family in the Mediterranean Sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The PlTrf genes and predicted proteins are highly diverse and show a typical Trf size range and structure. Coelomocytes and cell-free coelomic fluid from P. lividus contain different PlTrf protein repertoires with a shared subset, that bind specifically to E. coli. Using FACS, we identified five different P. lividus coelomocyte sub-populations with cell surface PlTrf protein expression. The relative abundance of the PlTrf-positive cells increases sharply following immune challenge with E. coli, but not following challenge with LPS or the sea urchin pathogen, Vibrio penaeicida. Phagocytosis of E. coli by P. lividus phagocytes is mediated through the cell-free coelomic fluid and is inhibited by blocking PlTrf activity with anti-SpTrf antibodies. Together, our results suggest a collaboration between cellular and humoral PlTrf-mediated effector arms in the P. lividus specific immune response to pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6639
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume22
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2021

Keywords

  • 185/333
  • Invertebrate immunity
  • Model organism
  • Paracentrotus lividus
  • Phagocytosis
  • Transformer
  • Trf

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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