The effect of antibiotic treatment of early childhood shigellosis on long-term prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Yair Sadaka, Judah Freedman, Shai Ashkenazi, Shlomo Vinker, Avivit Golan-Cohen, Ilan Green, Ariel Israel, Alal Eran, Eugene Merzon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

It has recently been shown that children with early shigellosis are at increased risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to evaluate the association between antibiotic treatment of shigellosis with long-term ADHD rates. A retrospective cohort study was conducted that included all the Leumit Health Services (LHS) enrollees aged 5–18 years between 2000–2018 with a documented Shigella-positive gastroenteritis before the age of 3 years. Of the 5176 children who were positive for Shigella gastroenteritis before the age of 3 years, 972 (18.8%) were treated with antibiotics early (<5 days), 250 (4.8%) were treated late (≥5 days), and 3954 children (76.4%) were not prescribed antibiotics. Late antibiotic treatment was associated with significantly increased rates of ADHD (adjusted OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.1–2.3). Early treatment with antibiotics was not associated with increased ADHD rates (adjusted OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.8–1.3). In conclusion, late antibiotic treatment of early childhood shigellosis was associated with increased rates of ADHD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number880
JournalChildren
Volume8
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021

Keywords

  • ADHD
  • Antibiotics
  • Microbiome
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Shigella

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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