This study examined the effects of strength, aerobic fitness, and activity profile on the incidence of overuse injuries, particularly stress fractures, during military training. A total of 136 military recruits were followed during 9 weeks of basic training. Maximal strength and aerobic fitness were determined by a one-repetition maximum leg press and a 2,000-m run, respectively. An activity profile was determined by the recruit's activity history. Twelve recruits (8.8%) were diagnosed with stress fractures. Recruits who were 1 SD below the population mean in both absolute (98.4 ± 366 kg) and relative strength (1.72 ± 0.61 kg/kg of body weight) had a five times greater risk for stress fracture (p < 0.05) than stronger recruits. Poor aerobic fitness did not appear to be related to any increased incidence of stress fracture. It appears that recruits with lower body strength levels, within 1 SD of the population mean, have a reduced incidence of stress fractures during military training.