The effects of adaptive cruise control (ACC) headway time on young-experienced drivers' overtaking tendency in a driving simulator

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The preference to maintain a certain desired speed is perhaps the most prevalent explanation for why a driver of a manually driven car decides to overtake a lead vehicle. Still, the motivation for overtaking is also affected by other factors such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, or sensation-seeking caused by following another vehicle. Whether such motivational factors for overtaking play a role in partially automated driving is yet to be determined. This study had three goals: (i) to investigate whether and how a driver's tendency to overtake a lead vehicle changes when driving a vehicle equipped with an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system. (ii) To study how such tendencies change when the headway time configuration of the ACC system varies. (iii) To examine how the manipulation of the speed and speed variance of the lead vehicle affect drivers' tendencies to overtake a lead vehicle. We conducted two different experiments, where the second experiment followed the first experiment's results. In each experiment, participants drove three 10–12 min simulated drives under light traffic conditions in a driving simulator under manual and level one (L1) automation driving conditions. The automation condition included an ACC with two headway time configurations. In the first experiment, it was 1 sec and 3 secs, and in the second, it was 1 sec and 2 secs. Each drive included six passing opportunities representing three different speeds of the lead vehicle (−3 km/h, +3 km/h, +6 km/h relative to the participant), with or without speed variance. Results show that drivers tended to overtake a lead vehicle more often in manual mode than in automated driving modes. In the first experiment, ACC with a headway time of 1 sec led to more overtaking events than ACC with 3 secs headway time. In addition, the relative speed of the lead vehicle and its speed variability affected overtaking tendencies. In the second experiment, the relative speed of the lead vehicle and its speed variability affected overtaking tendencies only when interacting with each other and with driving configuration. When the speed of the lead vehicle was +3 km/h and included variability, more overtaking events occurred in manual mode than both automation modes. This work has shown that driving with ACC might help reduce overtaking frequencies and more considerable when the headway time is set to 3 secs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)151-160
Number of pages10
JournalTransportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Volume86
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2022

Keywords

  • ACC
  • Automated vehicles
  • Driving simulator
  • Headway time
  • Overtaking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Applied Psychology

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