The Effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Behavior of Electron Beam-Melted (EBM) Ti–6Al–4V Alloy and Its Susceptibility to Hydrogen

Noa Lulu-Bitton, Nissim U. Navi, Shlomo Haroush, Eyal Sabatani, Natalie Kostirya, Eitan Tiferet, Yaron I. Ganor, Ofer Omesi, Gennadi Agronov, Noam Eliaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The effects of the secondary processes of Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) at 920 °C and Heat Treatment (HT) at 1000 °C of Electron Beam-Melted (EBM) Ti–6Al–4V alloy on the microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) after electrochemical hydrogen charging (EC) were investigated. Comprehensive characterization, including microstructural analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal desorption analysis, and mechanical testing, was conducted. After HIP, the β-phase morphology changed from discontinuous Widmanstätten to a more continuous structure, 10 times and ~1.5 times larger in length and width, respectively. Following HT, the β-phase morphology changed to a continuous “web-like” structure, ~4.5 times larger in width. Despite similar mechanical behavior in their non-hydrogenated state, the post-treated alloys exhibit increased susceptibility to HE due to enhanced hydrogen penetration into the bulk. It is shown that hydrogen content in the samples’ bulk is inversely dependent on surface hydride content. It is therefore concluded that the formed hydride surface layer is crucial for inhibiting further hydrogen penetration and adsorption into the bulk and thus for reducing HE susceptibility. The lack of a hydride surface layer in the samples subject to HIP and HT highlights the importance of choosing secondary treatment process parameters that will not increase the continuous β-phase morphology of EBM Ti–6Al–4V alloys in applications that involve electrochemical hydrogen environments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2846
JournalMaterials
Volume17
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • additive manufacturing (AM)
  • electron beam melting (EBM)
  • heat treatment
  • hot isostatic pressing (HIP)
  • hydrogen embrittlement (HE)
  • small punch test (SPT)
  • titanium hydride
  • Ti–6Al–4V alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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