Anti-microbial resistance (AMR) has recently emerged as an area of high interest owing to the rapid surge of AMR phenotypes. Metal oxide NPs (MeONPs) have been identified as novel phytomedicine and have recently peaked a lot of interest due to their potential applications in combating phytopathogens, besides enhancing plant growth and yields. Numerous MeONPs (Ti2O, MgO, CuO, Ag2O, SiO2, ZnO, and CaO) have been synthesized and tested to validate their antimicrobial roles without causing toxicity to the cells. This review discusses the application of the MeONPs with special emphasis on anti-microbial activities in agriculture and enlists how cellular toxicity caused through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production affects plant growth, morphology, and viability. This review further highlights the two-facet role of silver and copper oxide NPs including their anti-microbial applications and toxicities. Furthermore, the factor modulating nanotoxicity and immunomodulation for cytokine production has also been discussed. Thus, this article will not only provide the researchers with the potential bottlenecks but also emphasizes a comprehensive outline of breakthroughs in the applicability of MeONPs in agriculture.
- Anti-bacterial and antifungal activities
- Anti-phyto-pathogens activity
- Green synthesis
- Plant growth and morphology
- Therapeutic nanoparticles
ASJC Scopus subject areas