The Evolution of Citizenship Norms among Scandinavian Adolescents, 1999-2009

Jennifer Oser, Marc Hooghe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


In the recent debate about changing citizenship norms in advanced democracies, Scandinavian countries are often considered the frontrunners of the development of a new kind of engaged citizenship. The majority of recent empirical scholarship in this field, however, has focused on the United States. In this article latent class analysis is used to ascertain whether the ideal types of engaged citizenship and duty-based citizenship norms are relevant concepts for adolescents in Scandinavia, and whether there are significant changes in these norms between 1999 and 2009. The findings confirm that engaged and duty-based citizens can be clearly identified and that engaged citizenship norms are becoming more prevalent. It is also found, however, that engaged and duty-based norms are not the only norms identified in the analysis, and that important differences are evident in the background characteristics of those ascribing to different citizen norms that contradict expectations in the literature. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for changing citizenship norms in advanced democracies, including the potential implications of these changing norms for political behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-346
Number of pages27
JournalScandinavian Political Studies
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science


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