The aim of the study was to examine the stimulatory effect of the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the capacity of human term placenta to secrete interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-18. Isolated placental cotyledons from normal human term deliveries were dually perfused for ten hours with perfusion medium alone (n = 5) or with perfusion medium containing LPS (1 μg/kg perfused placental tissue) (n = 5). Placental tissue was collected from three different placental compartments (amnion, chorion, and placenta) before and after perfusion. The placental tissues collected were homogenized and examined for IL-15 and IL-18 by ELISA. In addition, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections from term placentas before perfusion were stained by immunohistochemistry to characterize the cellular origin of placental IL-15 and IL-18. Statistical significance was determined using paired/unpaired t-test. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Our results show that IL-15 and IL-18 are produced more by chorionic tissue, as compared to the amnion and placental tissues. Moreover, we show that IL-15 and IL-18 are expressed by epithelial cells of the amnion, chorionic cells of the chorion and decidual cells of the decidua. However, IL-15, but not IL-18, was expressed also by syncytiotrophoblasts of the villi. Perfusion of LPS did not affect the capacity of amnion, chorion and placental tissues to secrete IL-15 and IL-18, as compared to control. The expression of IL-15 and IL-18 in the different compartments of the human placenta suggests a possible role for these two cytokines in normal placental development, pregnancy and labor. Moreover, our results indicate that IL-15 and IL-18 are not part of the mechanism of the response of human placenta to LPS.