The impact of coal combustion residue effluent on water resources: A north carolina example

Laura Ruhl, Avner Vengosh, Gary S. Dwyer, Heileen Hsu-Kim, Grace Schwartz, Autumn Romanski, S. Daniel Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


The combustion of coal to generate electricity produces about 130 million tons of coal combustion residues (CCRs) each year in the United States; yet their environmental implications are not well constrained. This study systematically documents the quality of effluents discharged from CCR settling ponds or cooling water at ten sites and the impact on associated waterways in North Carolina, compared to a reference lake. We measured the concentrations of major and trace elements in over 300 samples from CCR effluents, surface water from lakes and rivers at different downstream and upstream points, and pore water extracted from lake sediments. The data show that CCR effluents contain high levels of contaminants that in several cases exceed the U.S. EPA guidelines for drinking water and ecological effects. This investigation demonstrates the quality of receiving waters in North Carolina depends on (1) the ratio between effluent flux and freshwater resource volumes and (2) recycling of trace elements through adsorption on suspended particles and release to deep surface water or pore water in bottom sediments during periods of thermal water stratification and anoxic conditions. The impact of CCRs is long-term, which influences contaminant accumulation and the health of aquatic life in water associated with coal-fired power plants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12226-12233
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Issue number21
StatePublished - 6 Nov 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (all)
  • Environmental Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'The impact of coal combustion residue effluent on water resources: A north carolina example'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this