The potential role of cytokines and growth factors in the pathogenesis of alzheimer’s disease

Gilbert Ogunmokun, Saikat Dewanjee, Pratik Chakraborty, Chandrasekhar Valupadas, Anupama Chaudhary, Viswakalyan Kolli, Uttpal Anand, Jayalakshmi Vallamkondu, Parul Goel, Hari Prasad Reddy Paluru, Kiran Dip Gill, P. Hemachandra Reddy, Vincenzo De Feo, Ramesh Kandimalla

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prominent neurodegenerative diseases, which impairs cognitive function in afflicted individuals. AD results in gradual decay of neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events. Several neuroimmune players (such as cytokines and growth factors that are key players in maintaining CNS homeostasis) turn aberrant during crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immunities. This aberrance underlies neuroinflammation and drives neuronal cells toward apoptotic decline. Neuroinflammation involves microglial activation and has been shown to exacerbate AD. This review attempted to elucidate the role of cytokines, growth factors, and associated mechanisms implicated in the course of AD, especially with neu-roinflammation. We also evaluated the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and growth factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline and further shed light on the availability and accessibility of cytokines across the blood-brain barrier and choroid plexus in AD pathophysi-ology. The pathogenic and the protective roles of macrophage migration and inhibitory factors, neu-rotrophic factors, hematopoietic-related growth factors, TAU phosphorylation, advanced glycation end products, complement system, and glial cells in AD and neuropsychiatric pathology were also discussed. Taken together, the emerging roles of these factors in AD pathology emphasize the im-portance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2790
JournalCells
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Blood brain barrier
  • Brain health
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Mild cognitive impairment
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Neurotrophic factors
  • Pathophysiology
  • Therapeutics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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