The protective effects of polyamines on salinity stress tolerance in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), an important C4 model crop

Periyasamy Rathinapriya, Subramani Pandian, Kasinathan Rakkammal, Manoharan Balasangeetha, Rajaiah Alexpandi, Lakkakula Satish, Ramakrishnan Rameshkumar, Manikandan Ramesh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Abstract: Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects crop growth, development and productivity worldwide. In this study, the individual and synergistic roles of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) in salinity stress tolerance of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) was assessed. In the present study, plants treated with combined biogenic amines Put + Spd possess very efficient antioxidant enzyme systems which help to control the uninhibited oxidation and protect the plants from oxidative damage by ROS scavenging. Additionally, lower concentration of Put + Spd under NaCl stress showed reduced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and caspase-like activity than control. FTIR analysis underlying the ability of PAs induced tolerance and the chemical bonds of Put + Spd treated plants were reminiscent of control plants. Moreover, histochemical analysis with 2′,7′–dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA), 3,3′–Diaminobenzidine (DAB) and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride (NBT) revealed that ROS accumulation was inhibited by combined PAs under salt stress condition. These results showed that Put + Spd significantly improve the endogenous PAs, which enhance high-salinity stress tolerance by detoxifying ROS. For the first time, the synergistic ROS scavenging ability of Put along with Spd was investigated upon salinity tolerance in C4 model foxtail millet crop. Overall, our findings illustrated the implication for improving salinity tolerance of agronomically important crop species. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1815-1829
Number of pages15
JournalPhysiology and Molecular Biology of Plants
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2020


  • Confocal laser scanning microscope
  • Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy
  • Histochemical analysis
  • Polyamines
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Salinity stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Plant Science


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