Mammalian Son-of-sevenless (mSos) functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras and Rac, thus regulating signaling to mitogen-activated protein kinases and actin dynamics. In the current study, we have identified a new mSos-binding protein of 50 kDa (p50) that interacts with the mSos1 proline-rich domain. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunodepletion studies reveal p50 as PACSIN 1/syndapin I, a Src homology 3 domain-containing protein functioning in endocytosis and regulation of actin dynamics. In addition to PACSIN 1, which is neuron-specific, mSos also interacts with PACSIN 2, which is expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. PACSIN 2 shows enhanced binding to the mSos proline-rich domain in pull-down assays from brain extracts as compared with lung extracts, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation of the interaction. Proline to leucine mutations within the Src homology 3 domains of PACSIN 1 and 2 abolish their binding to mSos, demonstrating the specificity of the interactions. In situ, PACSIN 1 and mSos1 are co-expressed in growth cones and actin-rich filopodia in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and the two proteins coimmunoprecipitate from brain extracts. Moreover, epidermal growth factor treatment of COS-7 cells causes co-localization of PACSIN 1 and mSos1 in actin-rich membrane ruffles, and their interaction is regulated through epidermal growth factor-stimulated mSos1 phosphorylation. These data suggest that PACSINs may function with mSos1 in regulation of actin dynamics.