The relationship between mindful learning processes and course outcomes in web-based learning

Danny Glick, Roni Aviram

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Online education has been growing rapidly within all levels of education. Reports published in 2007-2009 by the Sloan Consortium based on responses from over 2,200 colleges and universities in the US reveal that institutions report record online enrollment growth on both a numeric and a percentage basis. Nearly 96% of the very largest institutions, schools with 15,000 enrollments, have some online offerings, and about two-thirds of the very largest institutions have fully online programs. The Association of International Educators predicts that by 2020, global higher education demand for seats will reach 200 million. Much of this growth will be in distance education. While online education is growing rapidly, the impact of online learning on course outcomes has been subject to considerable debate. In 1983, Richard E. Clark famously argued that media have no more effect on learning than a grocery truck has on the nutritional value of the produce it brings to market. Recent research findings support Clark's statement revealing that students taking online courses score lower than students in face-to-face or blended courses. The research hypothesis is that the main reason for the little impact online learning has on learning outcomes is lack of Mindful Learning Processes (MLP), a new term coined by the authors of this study. The authors define MLP as an online course that is based on four interconnected components: learning theory, learning environment, learning process, and assessment. The goal of this paper is to check whether the research hypothesis may be accepted. To achieve that, the authors have reviewed case studies describing online courses published in peer-reviewed journals in the area of educational technology and e-learning. They authors have identified three case studies that fulfilled the MLP requirements stated above, and analyzed them in terms of learning theory, learning processes, learning environment and assessment. To measure the impact of the MLP on course outcomes, the authors analyzed these case studies in terms of test scores and students' perception of the e-learning experience. Analysis of the three case studies reveals that the outcome of the three case studies was positive in terms of achievement outcomes and students' opinion about course. The authors conclude that a Mindful Learning Process may lead to a meaningful and pedagogically sound course where theory, design, learning and assessment harmonize with each other. These findings support earlier work on instructional technology that found that the reason for the learning benefits of computer media is not the medium of instruction, but the instructional strategies built into the learning materials.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Learning, ECEL 2011
EditorsAsher Rospigliosi, Sue Greener
PublisherDechema e.V.
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781908272225
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2011
Event10th European Conference on e-Learning, ECEL 2011 - Brighton, United Kingdom
Duration: 10 Nov 201111 Nov 2011

Publication series

NameProceedings of the European Conference on Games-based Learning
ISSN (Print)2049-0992


Conference10th European Conference on e-Learning, ECEL 2011
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • Impact on learning
  • Learning outcomes
  • Mindful learning process
  • Review of research
  • Text analysis
  • Web-based learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Education


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