The Role of bi-Directional Graphic Communication in Human-Unmanned Operations

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1 Scopus citations


Digitization in the battlefield enables bi-directional graphic communication, i.e., sharing pictures or video feeds derived from unmanned systems, among distributed elements. Introducing robotic technologies at the battalion level is aimed to support shorter OODA (observe-orient-decide-act) cycles and more agility. Our focus is on developing bi-directional graphic communication tools for observer-executer teams as alternative ways to communicate. Following the Design Science Research methodology, four closely related consecutive studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how we first learn about phenomena and then use the knowledge to design interaction tools for communication. We first study the human-human observer-executer teams. Then, as the design of the interaction tools evolves, we transfer design principles into communication tools between an executer and the unmanned system (Wizard of Oz study). Our work highlights the potential of implementing and using bi-directional graphic communication to enhance battlefield understanding in addition to verbal communication (speech or chat). We demonstrate the necessity of user-centered development and evaluation for design and application. Further, we emphasize the role of the unmanned system operator (observer) and raise questions regarding how to further progress in teaming with intelligent unmanned systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1926-1943
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Issue number18-20
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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