The rumen microbiome: balancing food security and environmental impacts

Itzhak Mizrahi, R. John Wallace, Sarah Moraïs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Ruminants produce edible products and contribute to food security. They house a complex rumen microbial community that enables the host to digest their plant feed through microbial-mediated fermentation. However, the rumen microbiome is also responsible for the production of one of the most potent greenhouse gases, methane, and contributes about 18% of its total anthropogenic emissions. Conventional methods to lower methane production by ruminants have proved successful, but to a limited and often temporary extent. An increased understanding of the host–microbiome interactions has led to the development of new mitigation strategies. In this Review we describe the composition, ecology and metabolism of the rumen microbiome, and the impact on host physiology and the environment. We also discuss the most pertinent methane mitigation strategies that emerged to balance food security and environmental impacts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)553-566
Number of pages14
JournalNature Reviews Microbiology
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology and Microbiology (all)
  • Infectious Diseases


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