The Significance of Gender in Perinatal Medicine

Kristie Hadley, Eyal Sheiner

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


    Males and females are different in utero as well as in the postpartum period. From the earliest moments, males and females grow and develop differently, respond to their environments differently, and have different moments of vulnerability. Overall, males have been shown to be more vulnerable in the short term and the long term in a large variety of clinical situations. The exact reasons for this vulnerability are not yet known as male sex is still an independent variable for adverse outcomes when all known risk factors are controlled. The mechanisms by which vulnerability increases in utero and after is an ongoing area of research that may have a profound impact on the way medicine is practiced in the future.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationPrinciples of Gender-Specific Medicine
    Subtitle of host publicationGender in the Genomic Era: Third Edition
    Number of pages18
    ISBN (Print)9780128035061
    StatePublished - 15 May 2017


    • Development
    • Gender
    • Intrauterine
    • Outcomes
    • Vulnerability

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine (all)


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