The sorting paired features task a measure of association strengths

Yoav Bar-Anan, Brian A. Nosek, Michelangelo Vianello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


The sorting paired features (SPF) task measures four associations in a single response block. Using four response options (e.g., good- Republicans, bad-Republicans, good-Democrats, and bad-Democrats), each trial requires participants to categorize two stimuli at once to a category pair (e.g., wonderful-Clinton to good-Democrats). Unlike other association measures, the SPF requires simultaneous categorization of both components of the association in the same trial. Providing measurement flexibility, it is sensitive to both focal, attended concepts and nonfocal, unattended stimulus features (e.g., gender of individuals in a politics SPF). Three studies measure race, gender, and political evaluations, differentiate automatic evaluations between known groups, provide evidence of convergent and discriminant validity with other attitude measures, and illustrate the SPF's unique measurement qualities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-343
Number of pages15
JournalExperimental Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 6 Jul 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Attitude measures
  • Automatic association
  • Automatic attitudes
  • Implicit measures
  • Priming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Psychology


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