The Spectrum of the Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2: An Observational Analysis of a 60 Patient Cohort

Karyl S. Barron, Ivona Aksentijevich, Natalie T. Deuitch, Deborah L. Stone, Patrycja Hoffmann, Ryan Videgar-Laird, Ariane Soldatos, Jenna Bergerson, Camilo Toro, Cornelia Cudrici, Michele Nehrebecky, Tina Romeo, Anne Jones, Manfred Boehm, Jennifer A. Kanakry, Dimana Dimitrova, Katherine R. Calvo, Hawwa Alao, Devika Kapuria, Gil Ben-YakovDominique C. Pichard, Londa Hathaway, Alessandra Brofferio, Elisa McRae, Natalia Sampaio Moura, Oskar Schnappauf, Sofia Rosenzweig, Theo Heller, Edward W. Cowen, Daniel L. Kastner, Amanda K. Ombrello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


The deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is an autosomal recessively inherited disease that has undergone extensive phenotypic expansion since being first described in patients with fevers, recurrent strokes, livedo racemosa, and polyarteritis nodosa in 2014. It is now recognized that patients may develop multisystem disease that spans multiple medical subspecialties. Here, we describe the findings from a large single center longitudinal cohort of 60 patients, the broad phenotypic presentation, as well as highlight the cohort’s experience with hematopoietic cell transplantation and COVID-19. Disease manifestations could be separated into three major phenotypes: inflammatory/vascular, immune dysregulatory, and hematologic, however, most patients presented with significant overlap between these three phenotype groups. The cardinal features of the inflammatory/vascular group included cutaneous manifestations and stroke. Evidence of immune dysregulation was commonly observed, including hypogammaglobulinemia, absent to low class-switched memory B cells, and inadequate response to vaccination. Despite these findings, infectious complications were exceedingly rare in this cohort. Hematologic findings including pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), immune-mediated neutropenia, and pancytopenia were observed in half of patients. We significantly extended our experience using anti-TNF agents, with no strokes observed in 2026 patient months on TNF inhibitors. Meanwhile, hematologic and immune features had a more varied response to anti-TNF therapy. Six patients received a total of 10 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) procedures, with secondary graft failure necessitating repeat HCTs in three patients, as well as unplanned donor cell infusions to avoid graft rejection. All transplanted patients had been on anti-TNF agents prior to HCT and received varying degrees of reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning. All transplanted patients are still alive and have discontinued anti-TNF therapy. The long-term follow up afforded by this large single-center study underscores the clinical heterogeneity of DADA2 and the potential for phenotypes to evolve in any individual patient.

Original languageEnglish
Article number811473
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
StatePublished - 10 Jan 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • ADA2
  • anti-TNF therapy
  • bone marrow failure
  • deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2)
  • hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)
  • immune dysregulation
  • lacunar strokes
  • vasculopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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