Rather than hooliganism per se, violence here is examined both in its totality and the extent to which the history of football violence in Israel has been subject to a fluctuating social, political and economic context. Initially, footballers were the usual suspect as violence was often incited by the players on the pitch. For political reasons, the Israel Football Association (IFA) was practically helpless. Over time, violent incidents on the pitch decreased as a change in the pattern of violence took place. Due to an increasing commodification of Israeli football, players and spectators switched places. The crowd was now the usual suspect and later, due to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, ethnicity-nationality became the major trigger for violent actions in Israeli football.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation