Therapeutic self-disclosure in integrative psychotherapy: When is this a clinical error?

Sharon Ziv-Beiman, Golan Shahar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Ascending to prominence in virtually all forms of psychotherapy, therapist self-disclosure (TSD) has recently been identified as a primarily integrative intervention (Ziv-Beiman, 2013). In the present article, we discuss various instances in which using TSD in integrative psychotherapy might constitute a clinical error. First, we briefly review extant theory and empirical research on TSD, followed by our preferred version of integrative psychotherapy (i.e., a version of Wachtel's Cyclical Psychodynamics [Wachtel, 1977, 1997, 2014]), which we title cognitive existential psychodynamics. Next, we provide and discuss three examples in which implementing TSD constitutes a clinical error. In essence, we submit that using TSD constitutes an error when patients, constrained by their representational structures (object relations), experience the subjectivity of the other as impinging, and thus propels them to "react" instead of "emerge."

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-277
Number of pages5
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • Clinical errors
  • Empresentation
  • Integrative psychotherapy
  • Therapeutic self-disclosure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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