Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging

Adrian Stern, Bahram Javidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

419 Scopus citations


Three dimensional (3-D) imaging and display have been subjects of much research due to their diverse benefits and applications. However, due to the necessity to capture, record, process, and display an enormous amount of optical data for producing high-quality 3-D images, the developed 3-D imaging techniques were forced to compromise their performances (e.g., gave up the continuous parallax, restricting to a fixed viewing point) or to use special devices and technology (such as coherent illuminations, special spectacles) which is inconvenient for most practical implementation. Today's rapid progress of digital capture and display technology opened the possibility to proceed toward noncompromising, easy-to-use 3-D imaging techniques. This technology progress prompted the revival of the integral imaging (II) technique basedon a technique proposed almost one century ago. II is a type of multiview 3-D imaging system that uses an array of diffractive or refractive elements to capture the 3-D optical data. It has attracted great attention recently, since it produces auto stereoscopic images without special illumination requirements. However, with a conventional II system it is not possible to produce 3-D images that have both high resolution, large depth-of-field, and large viewing angle. This paper provides an overview of the approaches and techniques developed during the last decade to overcome these limitations. By combining these techniques with upcoming technology it is to be expected that II-based 3-D imaging systems will reach practical applicability in various fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-606
Number of pages16
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2006


  • Computational integral imaging (CII), integral imagi (II), tnghree-dimensional (3-D) imaging.
  • Computer-generated integral imaging (CGII),

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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