Three-Dimensional Incoherent Imaging Using Spiral Rotating Point Spread Functions Created by Double-Helix Beams [Invited]

Vijayakumar Anand, Svetlana Khonina, Ravi Kumar, Nitin Dubey, Andra Naresh Kumar Reddy, Joseph Rosen, Saulius Juodkazis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In recent years, there has been a significant transformation in the field of incoherent imaging with new possibilities of compressing three-dimensional (3D) information into a two-dimensional intensity distribution without two-beam interference (TBI). Most incoherent 3D imagers without TBI are based on scattering by a random phase mask exhibiting sharp autocorrelation and low cross-correlation along the depth axis. Consequently, during reconstruction, high lateral and axial resolutions are obtained. Scattering based-Imaging requires a wasteful photon budget and is therefore precluded in many power-sensitive applications. This study develops a proof-of-concept 3D incoherent imaging method using a rotating point spread function termed 3D Incoherent Imaging with Spiral Beams (3DI2SB). The rotation speed of the point spread function (PSF) with displacement and the orbital angular momentum has been theoretically analyzed. The imaging characteristics of 3DI2SB were compared with a direct imaging system using a diffractive lens, and the proposed system exhibited a higher focal depth than the direct imaging system. Different computational reconstruction methods such as the Lucy–Richardson algorithm (LRA), non-linear reconstruction (NLR), and the Lucy–Richardson–Rosen algorithm (LRRA) were compared. While LRRA performed better than both LRA and NLR for an ideal case, NLR performed better than both under real experimental conditions. Both single plane imaging, as well as synthetic 3D imaging, were demonstrated. We believe that the proposed approach might cause a paradigm shift in the current state-of-the-art incoherent imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and astronomical imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Article number37
JournalNanoscale Research Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Diffractive optics
  • Imaging
  • Incoherent holography
  • Microscopy
  • Orbital angular momentum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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