Three-dimensional magnetic tracking of biaxial sensors

Eugene Paperno, Pavel Keisar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


We present an analytical (noniterative) method for tracking biaxial magnetic sensors. Low-resolution regions (LRRs) of a biaxial transmitter are determined for the tracking of a triaxial sensor. These regions represent the reciprocal LRRs of a biaxial sensor that is tracked with a triaxial transmitter. The LRRs' configuration suggests that at least four triaxial transmitters should be used to track a biaxial sensor. At least one of the transmitters will always avoid the sensor's reciprocal LRRs. We show, on the other hand, that there are no LRRs for estimations of distance between the transmitter and the sensor. This makes it possible to triangulate a biaxial sensor with a triad of transmitters, instead of four. Thanks to a better distance resolution, compared to the resolution of coordinates, the triangulation provides practically the same location resolution and update rate as those reached by conventional methods of tracking triaxial sensors. This is true despite the need to operate a greater number of transmitting coils.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1530-1536
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2004


  • Biaxial sensor
  • Distance resolution
  • Location resolution
  • Low-resolution region
  • Magnetic tracking
  • Reciprocal problem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Three-dimensional magnetic tracking of biaxial sensors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this