Time-domain near-field analysis of short-pulse antennas-part II: Reactive energy and the antenna Q

Amir Shlivinski, E. Heyman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


The time-domain (TD) multipole expansion, developed in the first part of this two-part sequence, is extended here to analyze the power-flow and energy balance in the vicinity of a pulsed antenna. Using the spherical transmission line formulation, we derive expressions for the pulsed power-flow and energy and identify the radiative and the reactive constituents. For time-harmonic fields, the reactive concepts are well understood in terms of the stored energy, but this interpretation is not applicable for short-pulse fields where there is no stored energy. By considering the TD energy balance, we clarify the transition of the near-zone pulsed reactive energy to the radiation power and show that the pulsed reactive energy discharges back to the source once the pulse has been radiated. We thus introduce a TD Q factor that quantifies the radiation efficiency. In particular, we show that super resolution using short-pulse fields involves large TD reactive energies and Q and is, therefore, not feasible. The general TD concepts discussed are demonstrated through a numerical example of radiation from a circular disk carrying a pulsed current distribution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-286
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Dec 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Antenna theory
  • Near field
  • Q factor
  • Short-pulse electromagnetics
  • Time-domain analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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