Tourism in conflict zones: animosity and risk perceptions

Maria Alvarez, Sara Campo, Galia Fuchs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose: This study aims to explore the topic of perceived terrorism risk and animosity as interrelated within the context of countries suffering from armed struggles and terror. The research investigates how these constructs influence the visitation decisions of millennials. Design/methodology/approach: The investigation focuses on three countries in the Mediterranean basin with varied degrees of risk but who include a conflict area, for comparison purposes. The data was collected through an online questionnaire aimed at young millennial students. Findings: The study confirms that animosity, for the millennial generation, is derived from conflicts and past historical events, or from political and social issues in the target country. In addition, the results show that animosity not only influences the perceived attractiveness of the destination, and through it the intention to visit the place, but also increases the perceptions of terror risk at the destination. Research limitations/implications: The research corroborates the importance of investigating animosity and perceived risk together. It also empirically verifies the influence of animosity on visitation intentions via the mediating role of perceived attractiveness of the destination and perceived risk of terror. Originality/value: The study investigates animosity in countries that suffer from armed political conflicts resulting in terror attacks, a context different from that of other already existing studies. The research also examines how animosity and perceived risk interact with each other to influence visitation decisions, a topic which is lacking in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-204
JournalInternational Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 17 Apr 2020


  • Animosity
  • Conflict
  • Destination
  • Millennials
  • Perceived risk
  • Terrorism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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