Towards an ethical framework for animal-based attractions

Amir Shani, Abraham Pizam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


Purpose - The aim of this paper is to discuss the issues of animal rights in the hospitality and tourism (H&T) industry, and to suggest ethical guidelines for the operation of animal-based attractions. Design/methodology/ approach - The issue is presented through an extensive literature review, in addition to current examples and demonstrations from the industry. Findings - For years, the H&T industry has been heavily criticized for its inconsiderate and even cruel use of animals for entertainment purposes. However, there are clear indications, presented in this paper, of a growing tendency to adopt approaches that emphasize animal welfare and even animal rights. Research limitations/implications - The growing awareness of animal rights, the changing public opinion and the influence of animal rights' movements is forcing animal attractions to re-evaluate their attitudes toward the use of animals. Generally, animal attractions should adopt an approach that combines entertainment, education and welfare concerns. Specific guidelines for each component and recommendations are provided. However, this issue requires further discussion and research to clarify key problems. Originality/value - The paper is of value to researchers and practitioners who are interested in the development of H&T ethics regarding the use of animals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)679-693
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management
Issue number6
StatePublished - 19 Sep 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Animals
  • Ethics
  • Tourism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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