In the present study we have assessed, by transcriptional and metabolic profiling, the systemic defence response of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to the leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) induced by the beneficial fungus Trichoderma asperelloides T203. Expression analysis (qPCR) of a set of 137 Arabidopsis genes related to Pst defence responses showed that T203 root colonization is not associated with major detectable transcriptomic changes in leaves. However, plants challenged with the bacterial pathogen showed quantitative differences in gene expression when pre-inoculated with T203, supporting priming of the plant by this beneficial fungus. Among the defence-related genes affected by T203, lipid transfer protein (LTP)4, which encodes a member of the lipid transfer pathogenesis-related family, is upregulated, whereas the WRKY40 transcription factor, known to contribute to Arabidopsis susceptibility to bacterial infection, shows reduced expression. On the other hand, root colonization by this beneficial fungus substantially alters the plant metabolic profile, including significant changes in amino acids, polyamines, sugars and citric acid cycle intermediates. This may in part reflect an increased energy supply required for the activation of plant defences and growth promotion effects mediated by Trichoderma species.