Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) remains one of the most common retinal vascular disorders that may lead to blindness. The etiology is unknown, however, predisposing factors such as hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and hypercoagulable states have all been described. Local ophthalmic illnesses such as open angle glaucoma, ocular trauma and orbital infections have also been suggested as causative. CRVO can be subdivided into two clinical types, ischemic and non-ischemic. The non-ischemic type comprises the milder form of the disease with partial venous obstruction and good visual outcome. Ischemic CRVO is the severe form and is associated with visual loss, because of nearly total retinal vein obstruction and poor perfusion to retina. In addition, patients with ischemic CRVO may end up with additional complications such as neovascular glaucoma that may lead to blindness. Over 90% of CRVO occurs in patients > 65 years. The presenting symptom is a sudden painless mono-ocular decrease in visual acuity which could result from macular edema, ischemia, or intraocular bleeding. Ophthalmoscopic examination reveals macular edema, retinal bleeding (more peripheral), tortuous vein dilatation and swollen disc. Current treatment modalities include systemic use of anticoagulation drugs, local treatments including laser, intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and surgery (vitrectomy). This review presents the current therapeutic modalities in CRVO.
|Pages (from-to)||245-250, 261, 260|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Medicine (all)