Trimodal therapy in T2-4aN0M0 bladder cancer––How to select the best candidate?

Ofer N. Gofrit, Amichay Meirovitz, Stephen Frank, Igal Rabinovich, Hemda Luwisch, Vladimir Yutkin, Tzahi Neuman, Guy Hidas, Mordechai Duvdevani, Marc Wygoda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The reported results of trimodal treatment (TMT) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer vary widely. We attempted to characterize the profile of ideal candidates for this approach. Between 2000 and 2019, 105 patients (median age 78 years) with T2-4aN0M0 bladder cancer were treated with TMT and analyzed retrospectively. Mean radiotherapy dose was 62 Gy (SD 8.4). Ten pretreatment prognostic parameters were evaluated including tumor diameter on pre-TURBT CT. Multivariate analyses was performed and combination of parameters was studied. After a median follow-up of 29 months, 53 patients (50.5%) developed recurrence and 70 patients (67.7%) died. Death was disease-specific in 46 patients (65.7%). Tumor diameter was the most significant prognostic parameter with p < 0.0001 for overall, disease-specific and recurrence-free survivals. For every 1 cm increase in tumor diameter, the risk of disease-specific mortality increased by 1.57. Age, cisplatin eligibility and the Charlson Comorbidity Index were significant predictors of overall survival but not of disease-specific or recurrence-free survival. Patients who were cisplatin-eligible with a tumor diameter ≤3 cm had a 5-year disease-specific survival rate of 79.2% as opposed to 33.9% in patients without one of these features (p < 0.001). When tumor diameter exceeded 5 cm (irrelevant of all other parameters), 5-year disease-specific survival rate was only 28.2%. Patient profiles can accurately predict response to TMT. In cisplatin-eligible patients with a tumor diameter ≤3 cm, TMT provides an excellent disease-specific survival rate. In patients with a tumor diameter >5 cm TMT renders unacceptably poor treatment outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8491-8497
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Medicine
Issue number22
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • muscle-invasive bladder cancer
  • patient selection
  • trimodal therapy
  • tumor diameter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'Trimodal therapy in T2-4aN0M0 bladder cancer––How to select the best candidate?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this