Typology of ICT Implementation and Technology Applications

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


This paper presents a typology of information and communication technology (ICT) integration into schools, demonstrates the typology by three case studies, and provides a discussion related to each. Based on the organizational learning approach, the typology will show that ICT use depends more on organizational arrangement than on ICT itself. The typology dimensions include two types of implementation processes, which differ with regard to the teacher's role, teaching methods, and time and space configuration, and two types of technology, which differ in ICT practices. The typology presents four types of ICT integration: traditional, "jet carriage", emergence, and exploitation. Three Israeli schools, which successfully implemented innovative pedagogy using ICT, serve as a case study for the three latter types. Implications of ICT inclusion in schooling are discussed and suggestions for further research presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-98
Number of pages14
JournalComputers in the Schools
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 13 Oct 2006


  • "jet carriage"
  • Double-loop learning
  • Emergence
  • Exploration
  • Implementation
  • Information and communication technology (ICT)
  • Organizational learning
  • Single-loop learning
  • Teacher role
  • Teaching methods
  • Theory-in-use
  • Time and space configuration
  • Traditional
  • Type I technology applications
  • Type II technology applications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Education
  • Library and Information Sciences


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