Ultrasonic cavitation of molten gallium: Formation of micro- and nano-spheres

Vijay Bhooshan Kumar, Aharon Gedanken, Giora Kimmel, Ze'Ev Porat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Pure gallium has a low melting point (29.8 C) and can be melted in warm water or organic liquids, thus forming two immiscible liquid phases. Irradiation of this system with ultrasonic energy causes cavitation and dispersion of the molten gallium as microscopic spheres. The resultant spheres were found to have radii range of 0.2-5 μm and they do not coalesce upon cessation of irradiation, although the ambient temperature is well above the m.p. of gallium. It was found that the spheres formed in water are covered with crystallites of GaO(OH), whereas those formed in organic liquids (hexane and n-dodecane) are smooth, lacking such crystallites. However, Raman spectroscopy revealed that the spheres formed in organic liquids are coated with a carbon film. The latter may be the factor preventing their coalescence at temperatures above the m.p. of gallium.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1166-1173
Number of pages8
JournalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Cavitation
  • GaO(OH)
  • Gallium
  • Micro-/nano-spheres
  • Organic liquids
  • Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Ultrasonic cavitation of molten gallium: Formation of micro- and nano-spheres'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this