Underlying pathology and associated factors of hemiplegic shoulder pain

Leonid Kalichman, Motti Ratmansky

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations


The prevalence of hemiplegic shoulder pain is approximately 22%-23% in the general population of stroke survivors and approximately 54%-55% among stroke patients in rehabilitation settings. Hemiplegic shoulder pain causes a reduced quality-of-life, poor functional recovery, depression, disturbed sleep, and prolonged hospitalization. Herein, we attempted to understand, based on a literature review and experts' opinion, the pathologic processes underlying hemiplegic shoulder pain and the major associated factors contributing to its development. The systematization of underlying pathologies was proposed, which might eventually enable a more constructive clinical approach in evaluating and treating patients with hemiplegic shoulder pain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)768-780
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number9
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2011


  • Etiology
  • Hemiplegic Shoulder Pain
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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