Universal augmentation schemes for network navigability: Overcoming the √n-barrier

Pierre Fraigniaud, Cyril Gavoille, Adrian Kosowski, Emmanuelle Lebhar, Zvi Lotker

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Augmented graphs were introduced for the purpose of analyzing the "six degrees of separation between individuals" observed experimentally by the sociologist Standley Milgram in the 60's. Formally, an augmented graph is a pair (G,ψ) where G is a graph, and ψ is a collection of probability distributions {ψu, u ∈ V(G)}. Every node u ∈ V(G) is given an extra link, called a long range link, pointing to some node v, called the long range contact of u. The head v of this link is chosen at random by Pr{u → v} = ψu(v). In augmented graphs, greedy routing is the oblivious routing process in which every intermediate node chooses among all its neighbors (including its long range contact) the one that is closest to the target according to the distance measured in the underlying graph G, and forwards to it. Roughly, augmented graphs aim at modeling the structure of social networks, while greedy routing aims at modeling the searching procedure applied in Milgram's experiment. Our objective is to design efficient universal augmentation schemes, i.e., augmentation schemes that give to any graph G a collection of probability distributions ψ such that greedy routing in (G,ψ) is fast. It is known that the uniform scheme ψunif is a universal scheme ensuring that, for any n-node graph G, greedy routing in (G,ψunif) performs in O(√n) expected number of steps. Our main result is the design of a universal augmentation scheme ψ such that greedy routing in (G,ψ) performs in Õ(n1/3) expected number of steps for any n-node graph G. We also show that under some more restricted model, the √n-barrier cannot be overcome.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSPAA'07
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures
Pages1-7
Number of pages7
DOIs
StatePublished - 18 Oct 2007
EventSPAA'07: 19th Annual Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: 9 Jun 200711 Jun 2007

Publication series

NameAnnual ACM Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures

Conference

ConferenceSPAA'07: 19th Annual Symposium on Parallelism in Algorithms and Architectures
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA
Period9/06/0711/06/07

Keywords

  • Small world phenomenon

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