Similar evolutionary variational inequalities appear as convenient formulations for continuous quasistationary models for sandpile growth, formation of a network of lakes and rivers, magnetization of type-II superconductors, and elastoplastic deformations. We outline the main steps of such models derivation and try to clarify the origin of this similarity. New dual variational formulations, analogous to mixed variational inequalities in plasticity, are derived for sandpiles and superconductors.
- Critical states
- Variational inequalities