Variations in macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene are not associated with visceral leishmaniasis in India

Anshuman Mishra, Pandarisamy Sundaravadivel, Sunil Kumar Tripathi, Rajan Kumar Jha, Jaydeep Badrukhiya, Nipa Basak, Isha Anerao, Akshay Sharma, Ajayi Ebenezer Idowu, Abhishek Mishra, Sonika Pandey, Umesh Kumar, Sakshi Singh, Sheikh Nizamuddin, Nitin C. Tupperwar, Aditya Nath Jha, Kumarasamy Thangaraj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: The host genetic factors play important role in determining the outcome of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important host cytokine, which is a key regulator of innate immune system. Genetic variants in MIF gene have been found to be associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Role of MIF is well documented in leishmaniasis diseases, including Indian visceral leishmaniasis, where elevated level of serum MIF has been associated with VL phenotypes. However, there was no genetic study to correlate MIF variants in VL, therefore, we aimed to study the possible association of three reported MIF gene variants −794 CATT, −173G > C and non-coding RNA gene LOC284889 in Indian VL phenotype. Methods: Study subjects comprised of 214 VL patients along with ethnically and demographically matched 220 controls from VL endemic regions of Bihar state in India. Results: We found no significant difference between cases and controls in allelic, genotypic and haplotype frequency of the markers analysed [-794 CATT repeats (χ2 = 0.86; p = 0.35; OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.61–1.19); −173 G > C polymorphism (χ2 = 1.11; p = 0.29; OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.59–1.16); and LOC284889 (χ2 = 0.78; p = 0.37; OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.61–1.20)]. Conclusion: Since we did not find any significant differences between case and control groups, we conclude that sequencing of complete MIF gene and extensive study on innate and adaptive immunity genes may help in identifying genetic variations that are associated with VL susceptibility/resistance among Indians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-387
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infection and Public Health
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 May 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Genetic polymorphism
  • Indian population
  • Leishmania major, Leishmania donovani
  • Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)
  • Visceral leishmaniasis (VL)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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