Waste to Wealth Approach: Customizing Spent LiB Anodes to High Performance Supercapacitor Electrode

Subramani Prakash, Murugesan Sandhiya, Jawaharali Kamarsamam, Mahadevan Ganesan, Marappan Sathish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) are widely used in various applications because of their high energy density, low self-discharge rate, and portability. The requirements for LiBs continue to increase drastically every year; however, the disposal of spent LIBs is a cumbersome task. To resolve this issue, spent LiB anodes are customized into high-performance supercapacitor (SC) electrodes via supercritical water exfoliation. The specific capacitance of spent LiB anodes (289 F g−1 at 2 A g−1) significantly improved after exfoliation (351 F g−1 at 2 A g−1). Furthermore, the electrochemical performance of the exfoliated LiB anode mushroomed upon the addition of dopamine (as a redox-additive for the first time) with a conventional H2SO4 electrolyte. The specific capacitance of the exfoliated LiB anode is incredibly improved after the addition of dopamine with H2SO4, from 286 to 571 F g−1 at 4 A g−1. A flexible SC is also fabricated using PVA/H2SO4 and dopamine/PVA/H2SO4 as the gel electrolyte. The fabricated flexible SC with dopamine/PVA/H2SO4 exhibited an enormously high energy density of 44 Wh kg−1 at 700 W kg−1. The increased specific capacitance and energy density of the SC after the addition of dopamine with H2SO4 and PVA/H2SO4 may be due to the reversible reaction of dopamine to dopamine-o-quinone with H+ ions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvanced Sustainable Systems
StateAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • dopamine
  • high energy density
  • redox-additive
  • spent LiB anodes
  • supercritical exfoliation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Environmental Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Waste to Wealth Approach: Customizing Spent LiB Anodes to High Performance Supercapacitor Electrode'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this