During renovation of the El-Shazliya Mosque in Akko, several cannon-balls were discovered inside the inner western wall facing the sea. One of the cannon-balls, a 32-pounder, was retrieved for archaeometallurgical analysis. The investigation included composition, microstructure and density analyses, and demonstrated that the cannonball was made of high quality grey cast iron and cast to a high standard. There was no evidence of gas porosity or sand-casting cavities, probably due to the presence of manganese combined with the use of advanced technology. Based on its manufacturing process and its high manganese content, it must have been manufactured after 1839. A British-Austrian-Ottoman fleet bombarded Akko from the west in 1840. Considering the cannonball's location as found in the wall, its estimated firing direction, the location of the western squadron, and the heading of the ships during the bombardment, it is suggested that this shot was fired from HMS Pique.
|Number of pages
|Published - 1 Jan 2012
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Metals and Alloys
- History and Philosophy of Science