What works for whom? Moderators in parental reflective functioning intervention

Atara Menashe-Grinberg, Sofie Rousseau, Naama Atzaba-Poria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The DUET program (a group intervention) aims to enhance parental reflective functioning (PRF). We examined whether pretreatment levels of key outcomes as well as individual parental and family-environment characteristics predicted improvement after intervention with the DUET program. One hundred forty-two parents (native Israelis; mean age = 34.84 years) of preschool children (n = 107; mean child age = 4.3 years; 53% female) were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the intervention. Results indicated significant associations between lower levels of key outcomes at the pretreatment assessment and greater improvement after treatment in PRF, child self-regulation, and child self-distraction strategies. Furthermore, two subgroups of families were uncovered based on individual parental and family-environment characteristics: low-distress and high-distress parents. Following intervention, the high-distress group showed greater improvement in parental sensitivity and child problem behavior, whereas the low-distress group reported greater improvement in locus of control. Clinical and future directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)640-668
Number of pages29
JournalAttachment and Human Development
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Reflective functioning
  • behavioral problems
  • mentalization
  • parent-child interaction
  • parenting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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