Where to park? A behavioural comparison of bus Park and Ride and city centre car park usage in Bath, UK

William Clayton, Eran Ben-Elia, Graham Parkhurst, Miriam Ricci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Integrating car parking facilities with public transport in Park and Ride (P&R) facilities has the potential to shorten car trips, contributing to more sustainable mobility. There is an ongoing debate about the actual effects of P&R on the transport system at the subregional level. A key issue is the relative attractiveness of city centre car parks (CCCP), P&R and public transport. The paper presents the findings of a comparative empirical case-study based on a field survey of CCCP and P&R users conducted in the city of Bath, UK. Spatial and statistical analyses are applied. Radial distance to parking, availability of P&R sites in the direction of travel, gender, age, income and party-size are found to be important factors in a binary logistic regression model, explaining the revealed-preference of parking type. Stated analysis of foregone parking alternatives suggests more use of public transport and walking/cycling would likely occur without first-best parking alternatives. The policy implications and possible planning alternatives to P&R at the urban fringes for achieving greater sustainability goals are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-133
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Transport Geography
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Park and ride
  • Parking
  • Public transport
  • Sustainable mobility
  • Transport policy
  • Travel behaviour

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Environmental Science (all)


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