Why are three-dimensional organisms composed of two-dimensional layers?

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1 Scopus citations


Multicellular organisms are ensembles of quasi-two-dimensional structures (sheets) of various kinds. Why should the development of all organisms be mediated by a quasi-two-dimensional structure? Why does such development avoid a direct confrontation with the third dimension? In this paper, we accept the challenge of addressing this question from the perspective of computational geometry and suggest that the construction of three-dimensional organisms may be explained by the constraints imposed on a bottom-up construction process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalFoundations of Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2007


  • Analytical geometry
  • Cognition
  • Computational geometry
  • Dimensionality of organisms
  • Interdisciplinary research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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