Background: Prevalence of youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased worldwide, paralleling the rise in pediatric obesity. Occurrence and clinical manifestations vary regionally and demographically. Objectives: We assessed the incidence, and clinical and demographic manifestations of youth-onset T2D in Israel. Methods: In a national observational study, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from the medical records of children and adolescents, aged 10–18 years, diagnosed with T2D between the years 2008 and 2019. Results: The incidence of youth-onset T2D in Israel increased significantly from 0.63/100,000 in 2008 to 3.41/100,000 in 2019. The study cohort comprised 379 individuals (228 girls [59.7%], 221 Jews [58.3%], mean age 14.7 ± 1.9 years); 73.1% had a positive family history of T2D. Mean body mass index (BMI) z-score was 1.96 ± 0.7, higher in Jews than Arabs. High systolic (≥ 130 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (≥ 85 mmHg) were observed in 33.7% and 7.8% of patients, respectively; mean glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) level at diagnosis was 8.8 ± 2.5%. Dyslipidemia, with high triglyceride (>150 mg/dl) and low HDL-c (<40 mg/dl) levels, was found in 45.6% and 56.5%, respectively. Microalbuminuria and retinopathy were documented at diagnosis, 15.2% and 1.9%, respectively) and increased (36.7% and 4.6%, respectively) at follow-up of 2.9 ± 2.1 years. Criteria of metabolic syndrome were met by 224 (62.2%) patients, and fatty liver documented in 65%, mainly Jews. Psychosocial comorbidity was found in 31%. Treatment with metformin (45.6%), insulin (20.6%), and lifestyle modification (18%) improved glycemic control. Conclusion: Youth-onset T2D in Israel has increased significantly and presents a unique profile.
- children and adolescents
- metabolic syndrome
- youth-onset type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism